The Foreigner (Ralph Connor, 1909)

Fleeing from persecution in Czarist Russia are Michael Kalmar, his wife, his two children, and his trusted friend Rosenblatt. Rosenblatt, however, has betrayed them and they’re shot at by border guards. Kalmar’s wife is killed. He marries a thick-headed woman named Paulina purely to see his children safely landed in Canada while he seeks revenge.

Winnipeg is not really a city as yet. It’s on the very pale of civilization. The part of town occupied by the Slavs — those who the British pioneers collectively call Galicians, regardless of origin — is just beyond it. The conditions are a nightmare. Kalmar supplied Paulina with money to buy a house, but she’s in a foreign land and understands no one. An agent takes her, Rosenblatt. The house is bought, but it quickly becomes a boarding house where Paulina and the children must work for free, and where for a little more, a guest might spend the night with Paulina. All the further funds Kalmar sends go directly into Rosenblatt’s pocket.

When Kalmar escapes from Siberia and traces Rosenblatt to Winnipeg, he attempts assassinating him without success. He’s jailed but escapes from his prison cell and vanishes once more. It was decided, though, that daughter Irma will go to school, where she should learn English, dress in western clothes, and begin integrating into Canadian society. Son Kalman, at the mercy of Rosenblatt and the vile influence of Winnipeg at home, is sent out into the country to a ranch run by Jack French.

The railroad is coming and soon the land will become a province of Canada. Kalman has discovered a coal mine which could mean his fortune, but Rosenblatt attempts to claim jump it. When that fails, he tries to seal Kalman and Jack in the mine and blow it up. Just then, Kalmar returns and sets fire to Rosenblatt. Before he dies, he fatally shoots Kalmar. The blood debt is over to Kalman’s relief, as he could not have carried it forward since he’s become a Presbyterian and has adapted to Canadian civil rule.

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The Sky Pilot (Ralph Connor, 1899)

Arthur Wellington Moore, a young and inexperienced preacher, is assigned a mission in Swan Creek, Alberta — a small cattle town in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Resistant at first, the rough and fiercely independent cowboys eventually come to respect him. Gwen, a teenager who lives in the outskirts of town, is injured in a stampede and left paralyzed. Moore — or the Pilot, as he’s affectionately called — ministers to her and helps her accept her fate. The town raises the money to build a real church, but the Pilot falls ill and dies just before it’s finished.

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